Apologetics

Did Saints Like John Chrysostom Venerate Icons? How Did It Arise?

This article is the fifth (and last) in a series in which I evaluate the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox practice of iconodulia—veneration of images. In previous articles, I looked at the evidence predating 313, when Constantine began to favor Christianity. This article will discuss the evidence that comes after. Here are the posts in …

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How to Weigh Evidence

When trying to find out what the early Christians believed, we deal with multiple kinds of historical evidence. Our goal is to properly weigh the evidence that we have, so that we come to the correct conclusion as to what they believed. The evidence that we’re dealing with are mostly written texts. We have letters, …

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Development of Doctrine | Why Catholic & Orthodox Changes Fail

In a previous article, I showed that Scripture and the early church both agreed that all doctrine had been revealed to the apostles. Only Jesus and the apostles are “upstream” from doctrine; in other words, only statements by them can be taken as definitive of Christian doctrine. Everyone else is “downstream” from doctrine; our statements …

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Why Doctrine Comes from Scripture—Foundations for an Anabaptist View of Doctrinal Authority

As Christians, we believe some teachings to be true and others to be false. But how can we tell which is which? Where does true Christian doctrine come from, and can those doctrines change or develop? This article will answer those questions and offer a from-the-ground-up defense for the view that Christian doctrine comes from …

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